Albert Bandura Biographical Sketch
Includes his youth, education, and professional accomplishments. Details his
studies on adolescent aggression, social learning, and the exercise of control.

  • As he recalls, 'this was the heyday of theoretical and experimental analyses of learning, which was the phenomenon of central interest, with the Hullian approach being the dominant theory at the time

  • It was also the scene of occasional clever pranks designed to raise Spence's blood pressure, such as when the graduate students pinned a rat that had expired on the Departmental bulletin board with an explanatory note, 'This rat ran according to Tolman's theory.' When Spence spied the rodent, he snatched it away with an explosive expletive

  • Because of a close allegiance between Spence and at Yale University, students and faculty at Iowa followed theory and research at Yale closely

  • In the 1930s, social learning theory was born at the Yale Institute of Human Relations under the direction of Mark May with the intellectual leadership of Hull

  • Despite Spence's missionary zeal at Iowa, Bandura was not attracted to Hullian theory because of its emphasis on tedious trial-and-error learning

  • This was a time when the field of clinical psychology was heavily intrapsychically oriented under the reign of psychoanalytic theory

    Situated Learning
    Overview of this theory created by J. Lava. Includes definition and reference list.

  • These ideas are what Lave & Wenger (1991) call the process of "legitimate peripheral participation." Other researchers have further developed the theory of situated learning

  • Situated learning has antecedents in the work of Gibson (theory of affordances) and (social learning)

  • In addition, the theory of on mathematical problem solving embodies some of the critical elements of situated learning framework

  • Scope/Application : Situated learning is a general theory of knowledge acquisition

  • McLellan (1995) provides a collection of articles that describe various perspectives on the theory

    Instructional Design Models
    Comprehensive set of links to major models for instruction.

    A useful set of definitions and readings on constructivism.


    Photo by

    Mental Help Net - Psychological Self-Tools - Online Self-Help Book ...
    Shows evidence of how prejudice is learned and unlearned.

    Introduction to Learning: Classical Conditioning
    Explains how automatic responses to smells, sounds, and situations develop.
    Includes Pavlov's dogs, the Skinner box, and behavior modification.

    Learning Theories of Instructional Design
    Focuses on similarities and differences between behaviorism, cognitivism, and

  • Instructional Design & Learning Theory Graduate Student Educational Communications and Technology University of Saskatchewan May, 1998 Introduction: To students of instructional design the introduction and subsequent 'sorting out' of the various learning theories and associated instructional design strategies can be somewhat confusing

  • Why does it seem so difficult to differentiate between three basic theories of learning? Why do the names of theorists appear connected to more than one theory? Why do the terms and strategies of each theory overlap? The need for answers to these questions sparked my investigation into the available literature on learning theories and their implications for instructional design

  • I found many articles and internet sites that dealt with learning theory and ID, in fact, it was difficult to know when and where to draw the line

  • The main sections of this site are as follows: The Basics of the Learning Theories The History of Learning Theories in Instructional Design What are Theories and Models? What is a theory? A theory provides a general explanation for observations made over time

  • A theory explains and predicts behavior

    Socio-Cultural theory
    A collection of links to research and theory on social and cultural dimensions
    of learning.

  • Socio-Cultural theory &nbsp Martin Ryder &nbsp University of Colorado at Denver &nbsp School of Education Socio-Cultural Theory What is ? (Julia Scherba de Valenzuela) See .

  • Benefits

    Photo by

    Activity theory
    Work of Vygotsky and many others towards understanding human activity in terms
    of social, historical, cultural, and individual development; includes definitions ...

  • Activity theory &nbsp Martin Ryder &nbsp University of Colorado at Denver &nbsp School of Education Activity Theory Resources (Wikipedia) (Peggy Bengel) (UCSD) (Yrjö Engeström) (2002 CSCW Issue, David Redmiles, ed.) ( The Influence of Vygotsky and Wittgenstein (1997) Why Vygotsky? The Role of Theoretical Psychology in Russian Education Reform (2000) Studying the workplace: considering the usefulness of activity theory Alexander Luria (Columbia Encyclopedia) (Wikipedia) ( (Douglas Bowden) (Michael Cole) (Michael Cole) (1974) (Courtesy, Nate Schmolze) ( (Michael Cole) (1997) Alexander Luria, Cultural Psychology and The Resolution of the Crisis in Psychology The Mind of a Mnemonist (Book announcement) Alexei Leont'ev ( (1978) ( ) Psychology and the Language Learning Process (1981) Ch

  • 3: Speech and communication (1991) Activity : The Theory, Methodology and Problems (review by Birger Hjørland) Evald Ilyenkov ( (1960) Readings Liam Bannon Barab, Hay, and Yamagata-Lynch (2001) Constructing Networks of Action-Relevant Episodes: An In Situ Research Methodology Design of systems for learning and working in librarianship

    Home Page for Professor Michael Kearns, University of Pennsylvania
    Reinforcement learning, probabilistic reasoning, machine learning, spoken dialogue

  • RESEARCH INTERESTS My primary research interests are in artificial intelligence and machine learning, including computational learning theory, reinforcement learning, probabilistic inference and graphical models

  • In recent years I have been mainly working on computational and modeling issues in game theory, economics, and finance

  • Course web page for (Spring 2002) Course web page for Web page for ACL 1999 Tutorial Slides Course Outline and Material for Theoretical Issues in Probabilistic Artificial Intelligence (FOCS 98 Tutorial) A Short Course in Computational Learning Theory: ICML '97 and AAAI '97 Tutorials PRESS Following are links to popular press articles that I either wrote, am quoted in, or are about research projects in which I participated

  • Berkeley, this MIT Press publication is intended to be an intuitive but precise treatment of some interesting and fundamental topics in computational learning theory

  • COMPUTATIONAL GAME THEORY, ECONOMICS, AND MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS: Networks Preserving Evolutionary Stability and the Power of Randomization

  • Graphical Models for Game Theory

  • Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference on Computational Learning Theory , 2000, pages 142--147

    Intentional Learning Projects
    Describes projects, research and articles addressing mass customization and
    personalization issue (adaptive learning) for E-LEARNING (Web, WBT, and CBT).

  • As a third purpose, this study collected information to guide future research efforts and refinements of the theory, constructs, research models, and instructional tools

  • Abstract: This article presents an intentional learning orientation theory and an agentive psychological construct and orientation model

  • Intentional Learning Construct and Orientation Model: A Description (Oct 1997) Abstract: This study presents an intentional learning orientation theory as an agentive psychological construct and orientation model

  • Abstract: The Intentional Learning Orientation Questionnaire (ILOQ) is a self-report, diagnostic instrument that aligns the intentional learning theory with practical measures

  • The manual provides a historical review of the literature, theory, and step-by-step strategies that have resulted in successful solutions for measuring psychological constructs

    Social Influence Theories
    Lecture notes covering cognitive dissonance theory, social influence, social
    judgment, the elaboration likelihood model, and the theory of reasoned action.

  • Influence Theories Cognitive Dissonance Theory The Key Points: People seek consistency in their lives

  • Do you like Shredded Wheat? Will you vote for Al Gore for president? Do you prefer lecture course or seminars? What's your favorite Friday evening activity? Is Seinfeld funny? Persuasion Often studied as changing people's attitudes Goal is usually to change their behavior Attitude-behavior link too often is weak Communication focuses on noncoercive verbal influence Most real situations are partly coercive How would you define coercion? Voluntary? Think about choice within constraints Social Judgment Theory Key Point : attitude change (persuasion) is mediated by judgmental processes and effects

  • Most unacceptable to me Mental representation of attitudes Social Judgment Theory says: Not just a single point: 'This is where I am.' Need to know range of acceptable options

  • Key Concept: Certainty How does being certain affect your attitude latitudes? For today I'll assume certainty = short LoA According to Social Judgment Theory can only influence within LoA If that's true, high certainty people are less subject to influence


    Language acquisition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    A useful brief overview of some of the current theories of language acquisition,
    with references to Chomsky, Lenneberg and the evidence from feral children such ...

  • However, an argument against Chomskian views of language acquisition lies in Chomskian theory itself

  • The theory has several hypothetical constructs, such as movement, empty categories, complex underlying structures, and strict binary branching, that cannot possibly be acquired from any amount of input

  • Since the theory is, in essence, unlearnably complex, then it must be innate

  • A different theory of language, however, may yield different conclusions

  • While all theories of language acquisition posit some degree of innateness, a less convoluted theory might involve less innate structure and more learning

  • Under such a theory of grammar, the input, combined with both general and language-specific learning capacities, might be sufficient for acquisition

  • It was an ideal (albeit horrifying) opportunity to test the theory that a nurturing environment could somehow make up for a total lack of language past the age of 12

    Developmental psychology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Wikipedia article outlining the main theories, aspects and research methods.

  • Contents [] Theory Many theoretical perspectives attempt to explain development, among the most prominent are: 's, 's (and its heir, the Development in Context or Human Ecology theory of ), and especially the framework employed by cognitive psychology

  • [] Ecological Systems Theory A family of, in Generally regarded as one of the world's leading scholars in the field of developmental psychology, Bronfenbrenner's primary contribution was his, in which he delineated four types of nested systems, with bi-directional influences within and between systems

  • Microsystem: Immediate environments (, and environments) Mesosystem: A system comprised of connections between immediate environments (i.e., a child’s home and school) Exosystem: External environmental settings which only indirectly affect development (such as parent's workplace) Macrosystem: The larger context ( vs., national economy, ) The person's own biology is considered part of the microsystem; thus the theory has recently sometimes been called Bio-Ecological Systems Theory

  • The major statement of this theory, The ecology of human development (1979) had widespread influence on the way psychologists and others approached the study of human beings and their environments

    Classical and Operant Conditioning
    A guide to the science behind animal training, explaining the terms and advantages
    of operant conditioning, used in clicker training.

  • Contents (click on the section title to jump to that section) Learning Theory and Learning Theory 'Learning Theory' is a discipline of psychology that attempts to explain how an organism learns

  • Why should animal trainers be bothered with learning the theory behind how their animals learn? Many excellent trainers have no formal schooling or organized understanding of how their training is effective or how their charges work

  • More and more trainers - pet owners, show competitors, horseback riders, show-business trainers, zookeepers, aquarium trainers and more - are finding that an understanding of learning theory helps them understand their animals' behaviors better, and plan their training accordingly

  • So trainers are learning the theory of learning theory! Classical or 'Pavlovian' Conditioning Theory Classical Conditioning is the type of learning made famous by Pavlov's experiments with dogs

    Situated Learning in Adult Education. ERIC Digest.
    Provides full-text access to the ERIC Digest of this name dealing with situated
    learning in adult education.

  • Situated cognition theory conceives of learning as a sociocultural phenomenon rather than the action of an individual acquiring general information from a decontextualized body of knowledge (Kirshner and Whitson 1997)

  • It should be noted that situated learning theory has not yet produced precise models or prescriptions for learning in classroom settings

  • 'Teaching for the Moment: Intervention Projects as Situated Pedagogy.' THEORY INTO PRACTICE 35, no

    Constructivism in Teacher Education: Considerations for Those Who ...
    Provides full-text access to the ERIC Digest of this name which shows how
    constructivism can be incorporated into teacher education.

  • Constructivism in Teacher Education: Considerations for Those Who Would Link Practice to Theory

  • WHAT IS CONSTRUCTIVISM? Constructivism is an epistemology, a learning or meaning-making theory, that offers an explanation of the nature of knowledge and how human beings learn

  • SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM Social or Vygotskian constructivism emphasizes education for social transformation and reflects a theory of human development that situates the individual within a sociocultural context

  • This approach assumes that theory and practice do not develop in a vacuum; they are shaped by dominant cultural assumptions (Martin, 1994; O'Loughlin, 1995)

  • CONSTRUCTIVIST FRAMEWORKS IN TEACHER EDUCATION While it may inform and influence practice, constructivism is a theory of learning, not a theory of teaching (Wolffe & McMullen, 1996), and translating theory to practice is both difficult and imprecise (MacKinnon & Scarf-Seatter, 1997)

  • They are typically characterized by substantial direct instruction in theory and practice, often without complementary opportunities for inquiry, discovery, or self-examination

  • CHALLENGES The overarching challenge constructivism presents to teachers and teacher educators is the formidable task of translating a learning theory into a theory of teaching (MacKinnon & Scarff-Seatter, 1997), which in turn raises questions about what teachers need to know and be able to do

    Instructional Services Standards of Learning Resources
    Provides sample resource materials and teaching strategies for English, history,
    math, and science. Helpful resource for those homeschoolers who wish to ...

  • The goal of these standards is to provide the foundation that will enable LEP students to be successful in the English Standards of Learning The purpose of this document is to provide language arts and content teachers with a brief overview of second language acquisition theory and suggest effective strategies for differentiating instruction for limited English proficient students

  • The purpose of this document is to provide mathematics teachers with a brief overview of second language acquisition theory and suggest effective strategies for differentiating instruction for limited English proficient students

    Evolutionary Psychology Primer by Leda Cosmides and John Tooby
    An invaluable primer written by two of the founders of the field.

  • Debauching the mind: Evolutionary psychology's past and present In the final pages of the Origin of Species , after he had presented the theory of evolution by natural selection, Darwin made a bold prediction: 'In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches

  • Einstein once commented that 'It is the theory which decides what we can observe'

    Mindy Machanic's Change Pages: Psychology & Mental Health ...
    Information and resources in psychology and mental health, including projects
    completed by graduate students in professional psychology at Walden University, ...

  • and Social Learning Theory, Three from University of York: (sorted by topic)

  • Links Personality theory sites: info; a presentation from

  • Educational Psychology & Learning Theory Pages , by Mindy Machanic ( yours truly ), from the Proceedings , First International Conference on the Social Impacts of Technology, 1998

    Home @CallCenter