The Moon
Outlines some of the theories of how the Earth and Moon split, along with Apollo
expeditions of space journeys to the moon.

  • The Moon I had the ambition to not only go farther than man had gone before, but to go as far as it was possible to go

  • Table of Contents Moon Introduction Lunar Science Additional Resources Apollo Mission Publications Apollo Lunar Surface Journal , The Moon has fascinated mankind throughout the ages

  • It has also been known for more than a century that the Moon is less dense than the Earth

  • Although a certain amount of information was ascertained about the Moon before the space age, this new era has revealed many secrets barely imaginable before that time

  • Current knowledge of the Moon is greater than for any other solar system object except Earth

  • On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first man to step onto the surface of the Moon

  • They and other moon walkers experienced the effects of no atmosphere

  • The moon's gravity is one-sixth that of the Earth's; a man who 180 lbf (pound-force) on Earth weighs only 30 lbf on the Moon

  • (The equivalent metric weight (or force) is the Newton, where 4.45 Newtons equal one pound-force.) The Moon is 384, 403 kilometers (238, 857 miles) distant from the Earth

    Earth Introduction
    Information on the earth sciences, with a main focus on earth statistics, plate
    tectonics, and movies.

  • -Edgar Mitchell, USA Table of Contents Earth Introduction Earth's Moon Earth Science Internet Resources From the perspective we get on Earth, our planet appears to be big and sturdy with an endless ocean of air

  • Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface

  • Hamilton) The crew of Apollo 17 took this photograph of Earth in December 1972 while the spacecraft was traveling between the Earth and the Moon

  • (Courtesy NASA) The Earth and Moon were imaged by from 2.6 million kilometers while completing the first ever Earth-Moon encounter by a spacecraft capable of returning high resolution digital color image data

  • From this particular viewpoint the Earth appears to be a water planet! (Courtesy NASA/JPL/Northwestern University) During its flight, the Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Earth and Moon

  • Separate images of the Earth and Moon were combined to generate this view

  • The distinct bright ray crater at the bottom of the Moon is the Tycho impact basin

  • This picture contains same scale and relative color/albedo images of the Earth and Moon

    General information, some statistical data and links.

  • The other probably have similar structures and compositions with some differences: the has at most a small core; has an extra large core (relative to its diameter); the mantles of and the Moon are much thicker; the Moon and Mercury may not have chemically distinct crusts; Earth may be the only one with distinct inner and outer cores

  • The interaction of the Earth and the Moon slows the Earth's rotation by about 2 milliseconds per century

  • Asteroids and have complicated orbital relationships with the Earth; they're not really moons, the term 'companion' is being used

  • It is somewhat similar to the situation with 's moons and

  • Distance Radius Mass Satellite (000 km) (km) (kg) --------- -------- ------ ------- 384 1738 7.35e22 More about Earth and the Moon Web more and movies the, very high resolution true color imagery from An as seen from Mars taken by Mars Global Surveyor pictures of (LANL) text and pictures of (LANL) pictures of and Volcanoes (LANL) more about the , an interactive map of the Earth (images and astronaut quotes; by Calvin Hamilton of LANL) , NASA images of Earth resources of the USA USA land use (AVHRR false color) Open Issues Our knowledge of the interior of the Earth is derived almost entirely from highly indirect evidence

    The Space Place :: Images of Earth's Moon for the Classroom
    NASA Moon images with captions showing different phases, suitable for printing
    and classroom display.

  • Images for the Classroom: Earth's Moon and the Apollo Program ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Webmaster: Diane Fisher Last Updated: September 08, 2005

  • info: EARTH MOON

    Photo by -- More Moons Around Earth? Its Not So Loony
    Article describing the asteroid Cruithne, and orbital motions at gravitational
    balance points in space that temporarily pull asteroids into Earth orbits.

  • advertisement More Moons Around Earth? Its Not So Loony By Senior Science Writer posted: 11:42 am ET 29 October 1999 second_moon Earth has a second moon, of sorts, and could have many others, according to three astronomers who did calculations to describe orbital motions at gravitational balance points in space that temporarily pull asteroids into bizarre orbits near our planet

  • 'We found new dynamical channels through which free asteroids become temporarily moons of Earth and stay there from a few thousand years to several tens of thousands of years, ' said Fathi Namouni, one of the researchers, now at Princeton University

  • 'Eventually these same channels provide the moons with escape routes

  • So the main difference between the moon (weve always known) and the new moons is that the latter are temporary -- they come and go, but they stay for a very long time before they leave.' Astronomers have long known that the solar system is full, relatively speaking, of asteroids

  • 'At specific points in its orbit, it reverses its rate of motion with respect to Earth so it will appear to go back and forth.' Whats in a moon? Co-orbital motions probably describe the orbits of many objects at the Lagrange points, Namouni and his colleagues say, but are these objects moons? A moon typically is defined as an object whose orbit encompasses a planet, say, the Earth, rather than the sun, said Carl Murray, who worked with Namouni and Christou on the research

    Earth's Leading Lunar Real Estate Agency - Buy Moon Property
    Offers deeds for lunar properties.

  • $18.95 SPECIAL! LIMITED-TIME OFFER A select group of properties in the Sea Of Vapors are now available for only $18.95/acre (€15, 70 EUR) ALSO AVAILABLE: Only $19.95/acre (€16, 60 EUR) The Moon's Most Prestigious Location $37.50/acre (€31, 10 EUR) Only $32.00/acre (€26, 50 EUR) · · It's not just a piece of paper

  • Through our alliance with the Lunar Republic Society and the Kennedy II Project , we are on a fast track to return to the Moon by the end of this decade

  • Searching for the perfect unique gift idea? You won't find anything on Earth more exciting than an acre of premium property on the Moon! Today, you can select and buy your own acre of moon property , complete with personalized parchment deed certificate, a satellite photograph of the property, geographic information to help locate the property (whether you're viewing it through a telescope or visiting in person) and much more! All documents are professionally designed, elegantly printed and make a great conversation piece when framed in your office or home

  • Your personalized documents package includes an engraved parchment deed, satellite photograph of your lunar property, an information sheet detailing the unique geographic features in the region, and much more! As seen on The Ellen Show! More than 850, 000 customers from around the world have purchased real estate on the Moon from The Lunar Registry either as a gift or for themselves

    Welcome to Earth-Moon-Earth Home Pages.
    Hello moon! This is JA-EME!

  • Sun Moon By W8MIF & JA5FNX / Bun From EHIME JAPAN Year Month Day UTC Sun AZ Sun EL MoonAZ MoonEL

    SwRI Spring 1999 Technology Today Article
    Where did the moon come from? This site explores the answer to that question.

  • Big Bang, New Moon Theoretical and computational simulations at SwRI could soon explain how the Earth came to have its orbiting neighbor

  • From this debris our moon coalesced, possibly on a time scale as short as one to 100 years

  • Robin Canup, a senior research scientist in the Boulder, Colorado, office of the SwRI Instrumentation and Space Research Division, specializes in models relating to the origin of the Earth-moon system, the formation of terrestrial planets, and the origin of planetary ring and satellite systems

  • Recently, research and computational facilities funded by NASA, the National Science Foundation, and SwRI's internal research program have been directed toward developing improved models of an impact-triggered formation of the moon and examining the related implications for the likelihood of similar planet-moon systems around other stars

  • Evolving theories of lunar origin Compared to other moons and their planets, the Earth's moon is unusual in several respects

  • Recent findings even suggest that the moon's core constitutes only 2-4 percent of its total mass, compared to a terrestrial core with about 30 percent of the Earth's mass

  • Benefits

    Photo by

    A Return to the Moon
    Several Clementine Mission images from the United States Geological Survey.

  • CLEMENTINE - USGS IMAGES A RETURN TO THE MOON The successfully mapped the Moon with 4 cameras (UVVIS 415-1000nm; NIR 1100-2789 nm; HI-RES 415-750 nm; LWIR 9 microns) over the period February through May 1994

  • Using the UVVIS and NIR cameras the entire Moon was mapped at a resolution of 125-250 m/pixels

  • From these new data it will be possible to map the mineralogy (rock types) of the entire Moon, a truly unprecedented feat in the history of planetary exploration

  • It was formed when a large meteorite (or comet) slammed into the Moon

  • The smooth dark patches seen in the extreme lower right forground and middle left background are mare plains - similar in composition to the large dark areas (mare flood basalts) that define the features of the 'man in the Moon' visible to a casual observer on the Earth

  • These navigation cameras were also able to take some spectacular wide angle images of the Moon

  • In this picture the Moon is seen illuminated solely be light reflected from the Earth - Earthshine! the bright glow on the lunar horizon is caused by light from the solar corona, the sun is just behind the lunar limb

    The Moon And Tides
    Explains with graphs and pictures how the moon affects oceans. Includes the
    differences between lunar, spring, neap, high, and low tides.

  • Moon Tides How The Moon Affects Ocean Tides..

  • The word 'tides' is a generic term used to define the alternating rise and fall in sea level with respect to the land, produced by the gravitational attraction of the moon and the sun

  • To a much smaller extent, tides also occur in large lakes, the atmosphere, and within the solid crust of the earth, acted upon by these same gravitational forces of the moon and sun

  • What are Lunar Tides Tides are created because the Earth and the moon are attracted to each other, just like magnets are attracted to each other

  • The moon tries to pull at anything on the Earth to bring it closer

  • Since the water is always moving, the Earth cannot hold onto it, and the moon is able to pull at it

  • The gravitational attraction of the moon causes the oceans to bulge out in the direction of the moon

  • Another bulge occurs on the opposite side, since the Earth is also being pulled toward the moon (and away from the water on the far side)

  • Ocean levels fluctuate daily as the sun, moon and earth interact

  • As the moon travels around the earth and as they, together, travel around the sun, the combined gravitational forces cause the world's oceans to rise and fall

    Keith's Moon Facts, Moon Phases, Moon Photos & Moon Folklore Page
    A collection of facts, phases, folklore and photographs.

  • --> Special Moon Events Section: From Our Friends at Earth & Sky This Site Can Now Be Translated Into Eight Languages Moon Phases: - Information and animation explaining moon phases

  • - An interactive view of the moons monthly life cycle

  • - View the moons current phase (Updated every 4 hours)

  • - Tons of moon phase info and viewing

  • - Search for any full moon between 1900 & 2100

  • - View every moon from 1800 - 2199

  • - A five year listing of full moon dates

  • - Full Moons for Solstice & Equinox dates

  • Moon Facts: - A little info about the moon

  • - A few lesser known facts about the Moon

  • - Info on moon halos, dogs and other phenomena

  • - Enter your earthly weight then see your moon weight

  • - How the moon affects the ocean tides

  • - What is that erie glow we see on a crescent moon

  • - Why does the moon look bigger near the horizon

  • - Why does the moon look orange

  • - Hear famous voices and strange signals from the moon

  • - The size of the moon compared to earth

  • Moon Events: - Five years of Blue Moon Dates

    Extracts from five papers studying Earth-Moon dynamics relating to evolution and
    gravity topics.

  • Feature 1 Would we have had evolution without the Moon? The Moon is currently moving away from the Earth at the very slow rate of 3.8 cm per year.  It has been moving away from the Earth ever since its formation more than 4 billion years ago.  During the first billion years of its existence its contribution to the evolution of the Earth was immeasurable due to the enormous mutual gravitational effect.  Excerpt from feature:   The recessional rate must have been higher the further back in time we go because to extrapolate back the current 3.8 cm yr -1 recessional rate, the existing mean distance of the Moon of 384, 400 km would need more than the 4.6 billion years for which the Earth is accepted to have been in existence

  • In fact, if the rate of 3.8 cm yr -1 had been constant over the Earth’s lifetime, the mean distance of the Moon from Earth currently would be 174, 800 km.  If we extrapolate the recessional rate back in time on an exponential basis, using N = N o .e -λt (exponential decay) we obtain a recessional speed of some 10 km  yr -1

  • That is to say the Moon’s orbit, initially, recessed at this 10 km yr -1 rate and gradually slowed down.  On this basis it appears that the Moon has been closer to the Earth throughout most of its lifetime and the further back in time we go, the closer it was.    Importantly, however, since the gravitational effect of a body is inversely proportional to (the square of) its distance, the much closer Moon had a greater gravitational pull on the Earth


    From the Earth to the Moon
    Illustrated hypertext.

  • FROM THE EARTH TO THE MOON by English translation by Lewis Mercier and Eleanor E

  • King (1873) Original illustrations by Henri de Montaut (1868) The Gun Club President Barbicane’s Communication Effect of the President’s Communication Reply from the Observatory of Cambridge The Romance of the Moon The Permissive Limits of Ignorance and Belief in the United States The Hymn of the Cannon-Ball History of the Cannon The Question of the Powders One Enemy v

    Science Tribune - 1998-
    Article by Peter Brosche on gaining understanding of changes in the Moon's orbit.

  • Empirical evidence from observations of solar eclipses made as early as in Antiquity pointed to a secular acceleration of the mean angular motion of the Moon amongst the stars which was first noted by Edmund Halley in 1695

  • The other half was buried in the work of Isaac Newton who thought that the apparent acceleration of the moon could be due to a change in the earth's rotation

  • Robert Mayer was the first to link the ideas that the moon acts on the earth and the earth on the moon by introducing the concept of angular momentum transfer in the earth-moon-system

  • It thus seemed obvious to him to ascribe these inconsistencies to an unexplained peculiarity in the motion of the moon

  • Half of the peculiarity in the motion of the moon could be interpreted by pure conservative celestial mechanics, the other half remained unexplained

  • Given that there were two separate lines of thought - the observations relating solely to the moon and Kant's ideas relating solely to the earth - what was needed was a catalyst - not even a theory - to link them

  • Somebody, somewhere, had to realise that the lunar inequality (apparent acceleration of the moon's motion) might be due not only to the ordinate (the length of the lunar orbit) but also to the abscissa (time)

    Earth's Moon: Mining or Tourism?
    While there's more interest at NASA for a manned mission to Mars, the private
    sector looks at Earth's moon.

  •  You are here: >>> > FREE Newsletter Sign Up Now for the Space / Astronomy newsletter!   Search More that 30 years after Apollo 17 left the moon, are we going to return to the moon? NASA Suggested Reading Free Email Courses [an error occurred while processing this directive] Related Blogs Most Popular Related Topics

    The Flat-out Truth
    Article profiling Charles Johnson, the president of the International Flat Earth

  • The Flat-out Truth: Earth Orbits? Moon Landings? A Fraud! Says This Prophet The idea of a spinning globe is only a conspiracy of error that Moses, Columbus, and FDR all fought..

  • The sun and moon, in the Johnson version, are only about 32 miles in diameter

  • The moon shines by its own light and is not eclipsed by the earth

  • Rather, lunar eclipses are caused by an unseen dark body occasionally passing in front of the moon

  • landed men on the moon

  • That, according to Johnson, is nonsense, because the moon landings were faked by Hollywood studios

  • But he acknowledges that the moon landings were at least partly successful

    NASA's Cosmicopia -- Ask Us -- Earth and Moon
    Contains an abundance of information about cosmic rays, the Earth's magnetosphere,
    the Sun, space weather, and other exciting topics in space science.

  • Ask Us Earth and Moon Where can I see views of Earth from space? contains over 250, 000 images

  • Small asteroids and moons can be non-spherical, but after they reach a certain size (when the force of their gravity can 'break' the rock from which they are made), all the bumps are pulled down, and they become more spherical

  • As long as the maximum mountain size is small compared to the radius of the planetoid (true for objects considerably smaller than the Moon), the body will be spherical

  • The Moon, being much smaller, has had time to cool and probably has a solid core

  • How much is the Earth slowing down? Has it always been slowing down? said that the Earth spins like a figure skater, but they can only spin for so long! The Earth's spin is slowing down by about 1.5 - 2 milliseconds per century, and that angular momentum is moving into the Moon's orbit, which is getting larger

  • Eric Christian For more information on Sun and Moon rise and set times, Moon phases, eclipses, seasons, positions of solar system objects, common astronomical phenomena, calendars and time, and related topics, check out the

  • Eric Christian Ever since junior high we were taught that it was the Sun's and Moon's gravity which were directly responsible for causing the tides on Earth

    A Created Solar System
    Earth-Moon cycles and their relationship to creation, slowing spin of the earth,
    created time.

  • A Quest for Creation Answers Is there any indication of mindful reason (or purpose) for the current spin-orbital configuration of the Earth and Moon? _ LINKS TO ARTICLES _ LINKS TO BOOKS _ LINKS TO OTHER Note that the times of the several ancient eclipses, equinoxes, and Moon phases that are currently referenced can be converted to/from corresponding Julian day numbers

  • Design of Time T he time stream when subdivided by the action of the Earth-Moon can be recognized to contain specific

  • In essence, the spin of the Earth does appear to function or work in quite perfect interface both with the annual transit of the Sun and also with the synodic orbit of the Moon

  • The phases of the Moon do likewise appear to return in interface with each of the passing seasons--on the average

  • F or comprehensive information concerning what appears to be interrelatedness between Earth, Moon, and Sun cycles, refer to the literature linked from the opposite column

  • We do hope that our current research of the Earth-Moon system will be of great benefit in furthering your study of a created solar system

    ORRERY: Moon - Earth's Only Natural Satellite
    General information about the satellite, the eclipses and the phases, presented
    in a popular language.

  • Moon - Earth's Natural Satellite | Moon | The Moon is the 's sole companion, orbiting at an average distance of 384, 400km

  • The Moon's equatorial diameter measures 3, 476km making it less than one third the diameter of the

  • Eclipses As the orbital plane of the Moon lies within 5° of the apparent orbit of the as seen from, occasionally their positions in the sky coincide, giving rise to a solar eclipse

  • The photo above shows the shadow cast by the moon - around 100 km across it moves at over mach 2! Solar Eclipses At other times the Moon's orbit takes it into the shadow cast by the into space, causing a lunar eclipse

  • Unlike solar eclipses, Lunar eclipses are readily observed from large areas of the 's surface, due to the greater extent of the 's shadow than that of the Moon's

  • Lunar Eclipses Map of the Moon Philip's do a large map of the Earth-facing side of the Moon with over 500 named features plus the landing sites of spacecraft

  • Buying Land on the Moon Some companies are pretending to sell land on the moon to unsuspecting individuals, and claim the sales are legal

    Features detailed photographs and descriptions of examples made for teaching and
    personal use.

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